Developmental Biology and Consciousness

Developmental biology is the study of the process of growth and development that gives rise to tissues, organs and anatomy of organisms [1]. The whole process is a precise spatio-temporal cognitive activity of organization giving rise to the biological form [2]. In addition to the limited co-participatory role of genes in differentiation and morphogenesis, modern biology recognizes that these are all cognitive activities [3]. All living organisms are endowed with consciousness from the earliest stage up to death [4]. This section of the symposium is intended to invite leading biologists and ‘cognitive biologists’ to highlight new developments in biology leading to the cognitive revolution in the field.


[1] Marx, J.L., The riddle of development. Science, Vol. 226, 1406–1408, (1984b).

[2] Wolff, P.H., The development of behavioral states and the expression of emotions in early infancy: New proposals for investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (1987).

[3] Neville, H. J., Bavelier, D., Specificity and plasticity in neurocognitive development in humans. In Johnson, M.H., Munakata , Y., (Eds.), Brain development and cognition: A reader (2nd ed., pp. 251–271). Malden, MA: Blackwell, (2002).

[4] Abrams, R. M., Griffiths, S. K., Huang, X., Sain, J., Langford, G., Gerhardt, K. K., Fetal music perception: The role of sound transmission. Music Perception, Vol. 15, 307–317, (1998).

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